Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine announced the charges Monday in Steubenville (STOO'-behn-vihl).
The grand jury had investigated whether adults like coaches or school administrators knew of the rape allegation but failed to report it as required by state law.
The Steubenville superintendent faces the most serious charges, including obstructing justice. A principal, a strength coach and a volunteer coach also are charged. They're accused of interfering with the investigation or failing to report possible abuse of a minor.
A judge convicted two Steubenville football players with raping the girl in August 2012.